Tyler’s Model is a theory of educational potential and student achievement developed by Ralph Tyler in 194 It seeks to explain the various aspects that affect educational success and failure. The model, also known as “Tyler’s Basic Principles”, outlines a four-step process that Tyler argued, when followed, should lead to the successful formation of educational objectives and curriculum.
Tyler’s Model provides a way to ensure that the educational process involves careful planning and evaluation, as well as a clear understanding of the objectives and methods used.
1 – Overview of Tyler’s Model
Tyler’s Model is an educational organization theory developed in 1949 by American educational psychologist Ralph Tyler. The model suggests that the task of developing an effective curriculum requires a thorough understanding of the forward-thinking elements that affect educational success and failure.
By following a four-step process, educators can create educational objectives and curriculums that will be achieved. The four steps Tyler proposed include: (1) Establish Objectives; (2) Select Content; (3) Organize Content; and (4) Determine Learning Experiences and Instructional Materials. The model also suggests that educators must be mindful of the attitudes, values, and conditions of students in order to discover how best to maximize student learning.
2 – Step 1: Establish Objectives
The first step in Tyler’s Model is to establish educational objectives. During this stage, it is important to bear in mind that the objective should be realistic. That is, it should aim to solve an educational problem and not introduce a change that is impossible given the existing circumstances.
It is also important to consider the teaching capabilities of instructors and the availability of instructional materials when identifying objectives. Once objectives have been established, the process of developing a curriculum can begin.
3 – Step 2: Select Content
The second step of Tyler’s Model is to select content. When selecting content, it is important to consider its relevance and its suitability to the established objectives.
The content must also be age-appropriate and in line with the overall educational standards. Additionally, educators should select content that is neither too advanced nor too simple, so as to ensure that students can learn without becoming overwhelmed or complacent.
4 – Step 3: Organize Content
The third step in Tyler’s Model is to organize the selected content into a logical sequence. During this phase, educators must consider how students can best learn the content and how it can be organized for maximum understanding.
Teachers must analyze how different areas of content are interconnected and how best to present the information. This phase is important in minimizing excess content and efficiently teaching the necessary material.
5 – Step 4: Determine Learning Experiences and Instructional Materials
The fourth and final step of Tyler’s Model is to determine what instructional materials and learning experiences best fit with the objectives and content selected. During this phase, it is important to take into account the varying learning styles of students and use a variety of teaching methods and instructional materials.
Additionally, the use of performance-based experiences allows students to apply their knowledge and help them comprehend, internalize, and attempt to master the material.
6 – Impact of Tyler’s Model
Tyler’s Model has had a lasting impact on educational theory and practice. By emphasizing the importance of objective formation and curriculum development, the model has contributed to a better understanding of what steps educators should take in order to maximize student learning. The four-step process established by the model has been applied and adapted by many educational institutions over the years and has had a role in influencing the current educational landscape.
7 – Criticisms of Tyler’s Model
Tyler’s Model is not without its critics. One of the main critiques of the model is that it is too rigid for a field that is constantly changing and adapting, such as education.
Furthermore, some have pointed out that the model fails to consider certain factors of student learning, such as their individual backgrounds, experiences, and learning styles, which can be influential in their development. Additionally, the model is based on the assumption that what works for one group of students will work for all and may not take into account the differences in student groups.
8 – Adaptations of Tyler’s Model
Despite its critiques, Tyler’s Model has been adapted by many institutions in order to apply to their own educational systems. For example, some institutions have added components to their four-step process, such as using Questioning Techniques and Student Engagement in assessment and evaluation. Moreover, the focus on student needs and wants has increased and the model has been adapted to take into account different learning styles and backgrounds.
9 – Current Usage of Tyler’s Model
The influence of Tyler’s Model is still evident today. Many educational institutions continue to use the model as a guide for developing effective curriculums and as a way to assess and evaluate learning objectives.
Although the model may not be applicable in all educational contexts, it still serves as an important starting point for many schools and remains a valuable tool for the modern educator.
10 – Benefits of Tyler’s Model
The four-step process that Tyler’s Model provides has a variety of benefits for educators. The model emphasizes the importance of objectives as a foundation for curriculum development, provides an understanding of the needs of students and their learning styles, and sets out a system to ensure that the educational process is approached in a systematic and objective manner.
In addition, the model has been adapted and refined through the years to ensure that it is applicable to various educational contexts.
11 – How to Implement Tyler’s Model
In order to successfully implement Tyler’s Model, educators must understand the four steps of the model and its implications. The first step is to set objectives that are in line with the educational standards, age levels, and teaching capabilities.
The second step involves selecting appropriate content that is suitable for the objectives. The third step involves organizing this content into a coherent sequence, and the fourth final step is to determine the best instructional materials and learning experiences for students.
12 – Qualities Needed to Adhere to Tyler’s Model
In order to adhere to Tyler’s Model, there are certain qualities that educators should possess. Firstly, educators should possess patience when following the four-step process, as it involves careful planning and evaluation. It should also be noted that understanding the attitudes, values, and needs of the students is essential to maximizing learning potential.
Furthermore, educators should be flexible and open to adapting the model to different educational contexts in order to achieve maximum success.
13 – Alternatives to Tyler’s Model
Though Tyler’s Model has been used as a standard for educational objectives and curriculum development for more than seventy years, it is not the only model available. Other alternatives to Tyler’s Model include Bloom’s Taxonomy, the Dick & Carey Systems Approach, and the Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction. Regardless of which model is used, all of these approaches have similar aims and are designed to provide educators with the necessary tools to successfully develop and teach curriculums.
Tyler’s Model has left a lasting impression on the field of education and is still used to this day by many institutions. By providing a four-step process to develop objectives and curriculums, Tyler’s Model provides educators with an effective means of assessing and instructing students.
Although it has encountered criticism, Tyler’s Model can still be a valuable tool for many educators and can be adapted to various contexts in order to ensure that students are receiving a high-quality education.