Education is one of the most important aspects of developing and structuring the lives of children and young adults. For this purpose, curriculum planning is a crucial step to help shape the learning experience of students.
Generally, curriculum development is a five-step process that includes identifying the purpose of the instruction, breaking down the content objectives, devising the lesson presentations, developing assessment techniques, and finally evaluating the process. However, many different models and approaches exist that schools, teachers, and other education administrators use to implement an effective curriculum. This article will explore the different curriculum planning models in more detail.
The Addie Model
The ADDIE model is one of the most common models used in curriculum planning in educational institutions. This acronym stands for analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate, which are the five steps in this instructional design process. The analyze step is the first step in the ADDIE model, which involves analyzing the educational requirements, goals, and objectives.
This enables the instructional designer to recognize the areas that need to be addressed and prepares them for the next steps in the process. The design phase involves developing the learning objectives and assessment criteria that will be used to evaluate the students’ understanding.
After this, the designer will develop activities, tasks, and other material that can be used to foster learning in the classroom. The fourth step is implementation, which is the actual step of launching the curriculum into the classroom.
Finally, the evaluation step involves evaluating the performance of the students and the effectiveness of the instruction.
The Kemp Model
The Kemp Model is based on the experiments conducted by John B. Kemp in the early 1940s. This model is also known as the cyclical model of curriculum development and is a five-step process that consists of exploration, specification, organization, implementation, and evaluation.
The first step of exploration involves identifying the related resources that can be used for curriculum development. The second step is specification, which is the process of creating a specific set of objectives and goals based on the explored resources.
This is followed by the organization step, which includes the structuring and sequencing of the objectives and instructional activities. The fourth step of implementation is when the curriculum plan is put into practice in an educational setting. Finally, the evaluation step is where the effectiveness of the instruction plan is evaluated.
The Tyler Model
The Tyler Model is an instructional design model developed by Ralph Tyler in the 1940s. This model follows a four-step approach, which is similar to the ADDIE model but also builds upon it.
The steps included in this model are assessment of educational needs, objectives, development and selection of learning activities and assessment techniques, implementation, and evaluation. The first step in the model is assessing the educational needs that identify the areas of instruction. The second step is the development of objectives that are measurable, attainable, and relevant to each instructional area.
The third step involves devising the activities and techniques that can be used to learning for the students. These activities are then implemented in the classroom.
Finally, evaluation is done to assess the effectiveness of the instruction.
7-Step Curriculum Planning Process
The 7-step curriculum planning process is a newer model that has been proposed and is quite different from the previous models. The first step involves problem identification, which is when the education provider identifies the areas of concern that need to be addressed.
The second step is designing the learning experience, which is when the essential learning goals and objectives are established. The third step involves instructional activities, which involve selecting the activities and resources that will be used in the instruction. After this, assessment designs are developed that include the assessment of learning objectives, which is followed by the development of the instruction materials.
The sixth step involves the implementation of the learning experience in the classroom, followed by the final step of evaluation which is done to assess how successful the instruction was.
The SAVI Scheme
The SAVI scheme is a model of curriculum planning developed by Professor Mick Randall in the 1980s. This model consists of the five steps of Situation, Audience, Value, and Interpretation. The situation step involves evaluating the present context and environment of the curriculum and assessing the needs for learning.
The audience step is when the objectives and content areas are established for the students. The value step is when the learning activities, instructional approaches, and assessment techniques are chosen that best fit the students’ needs.
The fourth step is interpretation, which is when this information is interpreted by the educator and implemented into the classroom.
The Ogden Model
The Ogden Model was developed by John Ogden, a professor of curriculum development, in the late 1960s. This model outlines a six-step curriculum development process that consists of objectives setting, content selection, design, implementation, assessment, and evaluation. Objectives setting is the first step of the process, which involves the setting of measurable and attainable educational objectives.
The second step is content selection which is when the relevant and important content areas are identified. The third step is design, which is when instructional strategies, methods, and activities are devised.
The fourth step is implementation which is when the instruction is implemented into the classroom. The fifth step is assessment, which is when the assessments are conducted to check the students’ understanding and mastery of the content areas. Finally, the last step is evaluation, which is when this information is used to evaluate the success of the instructional experience.
The Backward Design Process
The Backward Design process is an instructional design model proposed by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe in the early 2000s. This process also consists of a three-stage process of identification, design, and assessment.
The first step involves identification, which is when the content and topics to be addressed are identified and the desired outcomes of instruction are established. The second step is design, which is when instructional activities and strategies are devised that can help to reach the identified outcomes. The last step is assessment, which is when formative and summative assessment criteria are developed to measure the success of the learning.
In conclusion, curriculum planning is an important aspect of education that needs to be well-defined and outlined. There different models and approaches that education providers, administrators, and teachers use for the purpose of effective curriculum planning.
This article has discussed six different models, including the ADDIE model, the Kemp model, the Tyler model, the SAVI scheme, the Ogden model, and the Backward Design process. Each of these has its own strengths and weaknesses and is suited to various learning situations. It is important to consider all the models before making a decision as to which one to use in order to ensure that the lesson plan is effective, beneficial, and helpful for both educators and learners.