A curriculum is the formalized set of instruction, activities, learning experiences and materials designed and organized by an educator, often with the assistance of a specialist, to support student learning and development. The purpose of a curriculum is to provide students with knowledge, skills, attitudes and values to become successful individuals in both their School and life.
This article will focus on the different types of curriculums that are available, how each type is unique and how they contribute to student’s education.
1. Explicit Curriculum
Explicit curriculum is the type of curriculum that is explicitly taught by the teacher, typically through lectures and discussions. Examples of explicit curricula are the traditional school curricula, which focus on specific subject areas such as mathematics, science, and history. In an explicit curriculum, the curriculum is designed, sequenced and structured to clearly articulate the knowledge, skills, and abilities that students need to learn in order to master a specific subject area.
Explicit curricula often focus on the development of skills in response to specific standards or learning outcomes.
2. Implicit Curriculum
Implicit curriculum refers to the type of curriculum that is inferred from the behaviour or actions of the teacher, rather than explicitly taught in the classroom. An example of implicit curriculum could be a teacher’s behaviour in the classroom, such as the way they interact with students and how they respond to certain behaviour. An implicit curriculum provides students with the opportunity to build their own interpretations and draw upon the teacher’s behaviour and acting as a model.
3. Hidden Curriculum
Hidden curriculum is a type of curriculum that is not explicitly stated in the classroom, but rather is a set of unspoken rules, assumptions, expectations and norms that are transmitted to students. An example of hidden curriculum is the belief that attendance is important and will lead to success in school and in the future.
Hidden curriculum provides a structure that helps guide students and provides them with the skills and attitudes which are deemed important in the school and wider society.
4. Core Curriculum
Core curriculum is a type of formalized curriculum that is typically required for all students to complete. Examples of core curricula include mathematics, English, science, and social studies.
Core curriculum provides the basic level of instruction necessary for students to develop the knowledge, skills and abilities required in the subject area. Additionally, core curriculum is designed to give students an understanding of the core values, beliefs and ideologies that underlie the larger educational system.
5. Flexible Curriculum
Flexible curriculum is a type of curriculum that is designed to meet the unique needs of individual students. It enables teachers to adapt instruction to meet the needs of individual students and groups of students by using different types of instructional activities.
A flexible curriculum allows teachers to differentiate instruction by providing the necessary experiences and activities which enable students to more deeply engage in the material and acquire a greater understanding of the concepts.
6. Inquiry-Based Curriculum
Inquiry-based curriculum is a type of curriculum that emphasizes the process of learning rather than the acquisition of knowledge. The focus of an inquiry-based curriculum is to encourage students to think conceptually and to use inquiry to actively explore and investigate the world around them.
An inquiry-based curriculum encourages students to use critical thinking and problem-solving skills and encourages them to become creative and innovative thinkers.
7. Theme-Based Curriculum
Theme-based curriculum is a type of curriculum that is based on a set of interrelated topics, or themes. Theme-based curriculum is organized in a thematic way, which encourages students to actively explore the connections between different topics.
This type of curriculum allows for a more holistic approach to learning and enables students to develop meaningful connections between different subject areas.
8. Interdisciplinary Curriculum
Interdisciplinary curriculum is a type of curriculum that focuses on connections between multiple subject areas. Examples of interdisciplinary curricula include multi-cultural education, global studies, outdoor education and sustainability education. An interdisciplinary curriculum encourages students to use their prior knowledge and experiences to make connections between different subject areas and to explore the connections between different culture and societies.
9. Experiential Curriculum
Experiential curriculum is a type of curriculum that focuses on a student’s direct learning experience through activities and products. Examples of experiential curriculum are hands-on activities, simulations, projects and performances.
An experiential curriculum engages students in learning by providing them with an active learning experience that is seen, heard, felt, smelled and tasted. Experiential curriculum provides opportunities for students to develop skills such as problem-solving, critical thinking, communication and collaboration.
10. Nontraditional Curriculum
Nontraditional curriculum is a type of curriculum that focuses on alternative and creative approaches to learning. Examples of nontraditional curricula are project-based learning, student-centred learning, problem-based learning and service-learning. A nontraditional curriculum seeks to challenge traditional assumptions of learning by engaging students in a variety of experiences, activities and tasks.
Nontraditional curriculum encourages students to explore, question and analyze their learning experience.
11. 21st Century Curriculum
21st century curriculum is a type of curriculum that focuses on the development of skills and abilities that students need to be successful in the modern world. Examples of 21st century curricula are technology education, global competency, digital literacy and entrepreneurship.
21st Century curriculum seeks to provide students with the technological and interpersonal skills needed to be successful in a changing world.
In conclusion, there are 11 different types of curriculums that can be used in the classroom. All of these curriculums focus on providing students with the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values needed to become successful individuals in both their School and life. Educators should be aware of the various types of curriculums and how they can be used to enhance the learning experience of their students.